The Indiana Constitution directed the General Assembly to divide the State into judicial circuits, and provided that a Circuit Court would be established in each circuit. Presently, the boundaries of 90 Indiana Circuits are co-extensive with the boundaries of a particular Indiana county. There are two less populated counties which share a circuit. The boundaries of Indiana's First Judicial Circuit are the same as the boundaries of Vanderburgh County. The First Judicial Circuit Court is commonly known as the Vanderburgh Circuit Court.
Judge David D. Kiely was elected to the office of Vanderburgh Circuit Court Judge in 2012 for the term beginning in 2013. In addition, Kelli E. Fink has served as Vanderburgh Circuit Court Magistrate Judge since her appointment in 2009. Michael J. Cox was appointed as Vanderburgh Circuit Court Magistrate Judge as of August 3, 2015. Approximately two-thirds of the cases heard in Vanderburgh Circuit Court are felony criminal matters and approximately one-third are civil matters. Vanderburgh Circuit Court is responsible for Grand Jury proceedings and the County Law Library. Also, Vanderburgh Circuit Court manages the Adult Felony Probation Department and the Alcohol Abuse Probation Services / Drug Abuse Probation Services (AAPS/DAPS).
Judge David D. Kiely is one of the Supervising Judges of Vanderburgh County Treatment Court; he also created the first Veteran's Treatment Court in Indiana in 2011.